Celebrating Nursing History: What to Keep
Nursing Information Access
by Margaret (Peg) Allen, ®1996
by Margaret (Peg) Allen, ®1996
Celebrating Nursing History: What to Keep,
by Margaret (Peg) Allen, MLS-AHIP
by Margaret (Peg) Allen, MLS-AHIP
Significant nursing books to find and keep
Periodicals to keep
Sources used for some of these comments and selections
Films and videos
How and where to search
Other sources for historical research
Why go to historical sources?
Other Articles of Interest
Recurring questions on archives, weeding, and access posed by nursing librarians suggested the theme for this column. Last year was the 100th anniversary of the National League for Nursing (NLN) which began in 1893 as the American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses of the United States and Canada. The organization occurred during the World's Colombian Exposition in Chicago, under the leadership of Isabel Hampton (Robb). The NLN's official journal, Nursing & Health Care, featured many historical articles in 1993 to commemorate the occasion. Commemorative journal issues are an excellent source to get a perspective on the history of nursing literature. American Journal of Nursing's November 1990 issue reprints several studies which had a major impact on nursing practice, along with various topical reviews. A timeline of notable events in nursing history is interspersed throughout the issue. RN celebrated 50 years in its October 1987 issue, including a pictorial article, p. 77-100, which includes interviews with long-time subscribers. The shifting of nursing education from hospital based diploma programs to the mainstream of higher education has forced hospital librarians to deal with what to archive from their schools. At the same time, academic institutions offering nursing for the first time need to identify and acquire resources on the history of nursing. When a school closes, and the hospital does not see a need to maintain a strong historical collection, key historical resources should be offered to the local academic program replacing the diploma program. If they are kept, the nursing liaison and reference staff at the academic library should be made aware of what the hospital library has to share. On the other hand, giving clinical resources to the academic library removes access from the nursing staff. It will also give the academic institution a false illusion of having a clinical collection of adequate depth and breadth to meet the needs of modern nursing education.
NAHRS has a tradition of honoring those who have made major contributions to preservation of and access to the literature of nursing. In 1985, at our annual meeting in New York, we honored Virginia Henderson, focusing on her contributions as the editor and guiding light to the Nursing Studies Index and her outstanding advocacy for use of the nursing literature by nurses. In 1989 in Boston, we honored three nursing librarians, Mildred Grandbois, Lois Miller, and Mary Pekarski, for their lifetime achievements in support of bibliographic access to nursing, which were summarized by Ann Vreeland Watkins in the July 1989 issue of our newsletter. At the ceremony, I cited a comment by Gertrude Annan, one of MLA's historical leaders. At the 1963 NLN convention, at the Interagency Council on Library Resource's program, she stated that Too often, nurses talk to nurses, librarians to librarians. When I reviewed the biographical information on our honorees, one common element was that they were all librarians who did talk to nurses, as well as to other librarians. Mildred Grandbois and Lois Miller were the key librarians involved in the creation of nursing indexes in the 1960s, as documented in articles cited below. Mary Pekarski was librarian at the Boston College School of Nursing until her death in October 1988. With Virginia Henderson and Mary Ann Garrigan, she founded the New England Regional Council of Library Resources for Nursing.
Our section began in 1981. When MLA established the Sections, we built on the successful history of the Nursing Libraries Interest Group, which had involved many of us still with NAHRS. Others I remember as leaders have retired and/or moved on to other types of service. It would be nice to have a way of gathering information on those who have served in the past. Many of my sources and thoughts for this column came from past NAHRS Newsletter issues, forcing a long overdue filing of the boxes of nursing information I've accumulated in 25 years of nursing and allied health services librarianship. Gaps not covered by my files were filled in by member colleague Fred Pattison of the American Journal of Nursing Company.
While this column focuses on nursing, the principles also apply to the allied health professions. Many of these specialties, such as dietetics, respiratory therapy, and rehabilitation, grew from services initially provided by nurses and physicians. For example, preparing food in the diet kitchen was part of the nursing curriculum - proper diet was a major need identified by Florence Nightingale.
When weeding an older collection, keep first editions of nursing texts, all biographical material, and works on nursing history and trends. When the oldest edition owned is not the first, but represents a classic title, it should be kept. Note that this applies to first editions from the 1800s to the present - at least for titles that were well reviewed and received. If space is available, you will be saving the classics of the future. With the burgeoning of nursing research, titles now available cover topics unknown in the relatively recent past.
All editions of books on nursing history should be kept. While they may be available in several editions including a current one, the viewpoint presented changes over time, providing the historical lens of different periods. And, if your program suddenly decides to reemphasize nursing history, you cannot have too many books in this section! My faculty were concerned about keeping older clinical (but not historical) material in with the current books, so we established a separate Historical Collection section. To this, we added locally produced videos, seen as clinically out of date, yet representative of the programs of the time. Archives are another issue, beyond my expertise. An excellent paper on this topic was given at our section program on nursing in 1989, and I remember at least one poster session on the topic.
Landmark studies of nursing should be kept. Listed in chronological order, these include:
Committee for the Study of Nursing Education: Nursing and nursing education in the United States - the "Goldmark Report" New York, 1923. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
If you have an original copy, guard it carefully - this is one I was never able to acquire. It was the first major call for the reform of nursing education. For background information on the author and study, see the biographic sketch by Benson, noted in the last section.
Committee on the Grading of Nursing Schools. Nursing schools today and tomorrow; Final Report. New York, 1934. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
This committee studied U.S. nursing education from 1926 through 1934, noting numerous problems, especially with the smaller hospital based schools. As the Garland reprint Studies included an in depth, evaluative study of the books available in nursing schools - one for each theory course, plus the three best available references for that course. As the report noted, "Few of the Grading studies have cost so much in money, thought, and labor as did the study of training school libraries, and none has yielded such discouraging results." (p. 172). Of the books submitted, 32% were rated as fair, poor, or not known by every judge - only 9% were rated as excellent by more than half the judges.
Brown EL. Nursing for the Future: A report prepared for the National Nursing Council. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1948.
Following World War II, when the National Nursing Council for War Services was created to coordinate the war efforts of fourteen national organizations concerned with nursing, the National Nursing Council was continued to sponsor three studies - this is the report of the one on nursing education. The report advocates a clear distinction between professional and "nonprofessional" nursing, and stresses that professional nursing education should occur only in those institutions which can meet high professional standards. While stopping short of insisting that this be in institutions of higher education, this direction was encouraged.
Hughes EC. et al. Twenty thousand nurses tell their story. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1958.
In the 1950s, the American Nurses Association commissioned a study of the actual practice of nursing - just what functions were nurses performing at that time? This is the final report.
National Commission for the Study of Nursing and Nursing Education. An Abstract for action. New York: McGraw Hill, c1970.
Based on two and one-half years study by a multidisciplinary commission, this report identified four priorities for change: increased nursing research, improved education within the mainstream of American education, clarification of nursing roles and practices conjointly with other health professions, and increased financial support, particularly from governmental agencies funding research. Emphasizes the need for an improved knowledge base, and notes validity of earlier studies, particularly Brown's Nursing for the Future.
Institute of Medicine. Division of Health Care Services. Committee on Nursing and Nursing Education. Nursing and nursing education: Public policies and private actions. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1983.
Final report of a two-year study mandated by Congress as part of the Nurse Training Act Amendments of 1979. At the time of the study, there was a nursing shortage, particularly for "bedside" nurses. The summary begins by noting that registered nurses comprise the largest single professional component of the U.S. health care system. Its recommendations propose joint public and private efforts to improve nursing education and research by increased funding for graduate nursing education and certain specialized programs, funding support for basic nursing education via maintaining overall Federal support for higher education, and improved funding for health service providers serving the poor and elderly.
National Commission on Nursing. Summary Report and Recommendations. Chicago, c1983.
This report's 18 recommendations along with those from the Institute of Medicine study formed the basis for current strategies to improve nursing practice and education. As an independent commission sponsored by the American Hospital Association, The Hospital Research and Educational Trust, and American Hospital Supply Corporation, the report also listed Action Plans, Demonstration Projects, and Research Projects needed to implement the recommendations - a strategy which made this effort more than just another study.
National Commission on Nursing Implementation Project. Nursing's vital signs: shaping the profession for the 1990s. Battle Creek, MI, 1989.
A readable progress report from the NCNIP, formed to implement the recommendations from the two major U.S. studies of nursing in 1983: the National Commission on Nursing and the Institute of Medicine report. Reports background and highlights progress in three key areas: Nursing service delivery systems, Nursing education, and Information. The latter looks at nursing research as well as the emerging field of nursing informatics. Includes reprints of significant NCNIP brochures. While a new title, this and other reports of the NCNIP will be future classics worthy of preservation. As one surveys this list of national recommendations, one wonders how long nursing will struggle with the entry into practice issues.
Abdellah FG, Levine E. Better patient care through nursing research. New York: Macmillan, 1965.
Aikens C. Ethics for nurses. 1916.
According to a the timeline in the October 1990 American Journal of Nursing (p. 34), this was translated into 14 languages.
Aikens C. ed. Hospital management, Philadelphia, 1911. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
Nurse-administrators in the early days ran the hospital and the school. This was the first major guide to running the hospital.
_____ Primary studies for nurses. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1909.
More than a reference text, this work contained study aids such as questions for the student.
Alcott LM. Hospital sketches. Boston, 1863. Reprinted 1984, Garland, with Memoir of Emily Elizabeth Parsons, Boston, 1980.
These two works chronicle the nature of Civil War nursing. While Alcott only spent a month in the Union Hotel Hospital before illness sent her home, her writing talent enabled her to portray the realities of everyday nursing in her letters home, which were the basis for this book. Parsons memoirs are also based on letters home; she served more than two years as a nurse in the Union Army.
American Nurses Association. Laws affecting nurses' economic security; fair employment practices. New York: ANA, 1964.
American Public Health Association. Half a century of public health. APA, 1922.
Lavinia Dock wrote a short history of public health nursing for this volume, providing significant recognition for the public health nursing movement.
Anderson BE. Facilitation of interstate movement of registered nurses. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1950.
American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses. Annual Conventions, 1893-1919. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
These records of the annual conventions of the forerunner of the NLN capture the debates of the time.
Bailey H. Nursing mental diseases. New York: Macmillan, 1920.
With Cutler and Van Blarcom, examples of the first specialty texts written by nurses.
Barton C. The Red Cross; a history of the remarkable international movement in the interest of humanity. Washington, D.C.: American National Red Cross, 1898.
Beck AK. Reference handbook for nurses, 1905 (In 1962, AJN Co. had only 2d Ed, 1908, reprinted 1911.)
Bellevue Hospital. Manual of nursing. New York, 1878.
Along with the Connecticut Hand-Book, one of two physician authored texts written for one of the first three nursing schools in the U.S. (the first school is described in the Davis article). Three women (while not trained nurses, two had served as volunteer nurses in the Civil War) helped develop the book along with three physicians authors, all women.
Billings JS, Hurd HM eds. Hospitals, dispensaries and nursing: papers and discussion in the International Congress of Charities, Correction and Philanthropy. Baltimore, 1894; republished in 1984 by Garland.
These papers from a meeting held in conjunction with the World's Colombian Exposition of 1893 represent medical, nursing, and health care opinion from the U.S. and Europe. The nursing section represent Johns Hopkins' Isabel Hampton Robb's vision for nursing as a profession.
Brainard AM. Organization of public health nursing. New York: Macmillan, 1919.
One of a series of three small books edited by Mary S. Gardner.
Brainard, AM. The evolution of public health nursing. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1922. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
An early history of this field by an active participant, this history chronicles the field from antiquity through the district and settlement house movement of the time. The founding of the National Organization of Public Health Nursing is included.
Bridges D. History of the International Council of Nurses. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1967.
Brown AF. Medical nursing. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1945.
_____ Research in nursing. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1958.
This is the oldest book on nursing research listed in the Concordia list of recommended titles. Baer's article notes that the first issues of Nursing Research had articles that served as a research primer - the need for a text must have been critical.
Burling T. et al. The give and take in hospitals. New York: Putnam, 1956.
Burnham A. The community health problem. New York: Macmillan, 1920.
Included chapter on public health nursing, one of four physician authored texts of the 1920s that included nursing.
Campbell M. Folks do get born. New York, 1946. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
In response to Georgia's continuing reliance on black granny-midwives, a successful state program sent public health nurses into the rural areas to organize midwives clubs and provide education. Stories from these midwives are included in the last part of this chronicle by a participant.
Carnegie ME. The path we tread: Blacks in nursing, 1854-1990. 2d ed. New York, National League for Nursing Press, 1991.
In addition to serving as a remarkable history, this volume is so well referenced that it is a guide to sources for this topic - hard to know where to list in this column! One astounding fact: the first university based school of nursing in the United States was established at Howard University in 1893, but most histories credit the University of Minnesota in 1909. The Howard program closed in 1895 when it was transferred to Freedman Hospital (its clinical site). Parallel to the trends of the times, diploma programs predominated in the early years. Many programs specifically for Blacks were established. A list of these programs, 1886-1982, is provided on pages 26-28. 92 are listed; ten were sponsored by colleges or universities, and four converted to baccalaureate programs. 20 were established prior to 1900, including four of those sponsored by universities. In 1990, ADN and BSN degree programs were sponsored at 27 historically Black colleges, including Howard University (1922-5 and 1969- ) and Tuskegee University, established in 1892 as a diploma program and converted to a baccalaureate program in 1948.
Many notable Black nurses are identified, beginning with James Derham who worked as a nurse in New Orleans in 1783. He saved enough money to buy his freedom and became a physician in Philadelphia. The first chapter discusses five Black nurse serving in the Crimean, Civil, and Spanish-American wars. Individual contributions are noted in the chapters on education, achievements, professional organizations, and service in the federal government. Biographies of all Black members of the American Academy of Nursing and Black officers of national specialty organizations are a nice feature. Photographs are included throughout this book.
Connecticut Training School of Nursing. Hand book of nursing for family and general use. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1878.
Craven D. A guide to District Nurses London: Macmillan, 1889. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
An English text, representative of those used by American nurses until they began to write their own, this was the first work on visiting nursing written by a trained nurse.
Cullingsworth C. Complete manual of nursing. Philadelphia Blakiston, 1883.
By a physician.
Cutler BI. Pediatric nursing, its principles and practice. New York, Macmillan, 1928.
Deming D. The practical nurse. New York, 1947. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
This work, written under the auspices of the Commonwealth Fund, surveys the history of practical nursing, recommending guidelines that became the basis for LPN/LVN programs.
Densford, K J, Everett, MS. Ethics for modern nurses. Philadelphia, 1946. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
As the Garland summary indicates, this title represented a movement toward ethics based on principles rather than rule, but behavioral norms were still very much a part of nursing ethics.
DeWitt KD. Private duty nursing. Philadelphia, 1917. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
Nursing full-time for a patient and their family, most often in homes, was the norm for most of the direct nursing care provided until the end of the 1930s. Care in hospitals provided by student nurses had to be supplemented by a private nurse paid by the family when the patient needed more than the usual care offered by the staff. This manual pays particular attention to the problems posed by nursing in the home environment, which often included dealing with servants as well as the family.
Dock L. A Lavinia Dock Reader, edited by JW James. New York: Garland, 1984.
Includes her famous book, Hygiene and Morality: A manual for nurses and others, giving an outline of the medical, social, and legal aspects of venereal diseases, New York, 1910.
This work also includes a number of Dock's essays and an extensive introduction and bibliography by the editor. James is listed as a Professor of History at Boston College; she has made other notable contributions to references for the study of women's history.
_____ Textbook of materia medica for nurses. New York: Putnams, 1890.
Revised several times, this was a standard text for many years. Cooper recommends reading the prefaces, quoting from the 4th ed. (1905): Dr. Osler says that the patient who takes a medication must recover twice - once from the disease and once from the medication.
Domville EJ. Manual for hospital nurses (In 1962, AJN Co. library's first edition of this work was the 4th, published in 1881)
This is typical of the books written for nurses by physicians.
Edmonds SEE. Nurse and spy in the Union Army. Hartford, CN: Williams, 1865.
The East Harlem Health Center demonstration: an anthology of pamphlets, selected with an Introductory Note by Susan Reverby. New, Garland, 1984.
This innovative project, which studied public health nursing as it was practiced, to try to determine whether the nurse should provide just therapy or also function as a generalist health educator. This was a major debate. Titles include:
Widdemer, Kenneth. The House that health built, a report of the first three years' work, September 1, 1921 - August 31, 1924 of the East Harlem Health Center Demonstration. New York, 1928.
East Harlem Nursing and Health Demonstration. A comparative study of generalized and specialized health and nursing services. New York, 1926.
East Harlem Nursing and Health Demonstration. The Infant Service Report. New York, 1928.
Fiske A. First fifty years of the Waltham Training School for Nurses. New York: Garland, 1984. Bound with Worcester A. The Shortage of Nurses - Reminiscences of Alfred Worcester 83 , Harvard Medical School Alumni Bulletin 23, (April and June 1949).
Dr. Worcester organized this school in 1885, with a philosophy based on physician control of the nurse. It was the most famous school built on a non-Nightingale model; it closed during the Depression.
Foran JK. Morrisey H. Jeanne Mance; or the Angel of the Colony. Montreal: Sisters of Hotel Dieu, 1931.
Fullerton AM. Handbook of obstetrical nursing for nurses, students, and mothers. 1889.
Gardner MS. Public health nursing. New York: Macmillan, 1916; completely rewritten in 1926.
In 1928, Carr wrote that it had just been translated into French, and was generally acknowledged as the standard text.
Hampton I- see Robb IH. Some bibliographies list her works under her maiden name.
Harmer B, Henderson V. Textbook of the principles and practice of nursing. 5th. ed. New York: Macmillan, 1955.
My faculty believed this to be the finest nursing text ever written; keep the earliest edition you have as well as the last - also a classic. The last edition published was Henderson V, Nite, G. 6th. ed. New York, Macmillan, 1978. It was on the 1982 Brandon List for nursing.
Harrison G. The nurse and the law. Philadelphia, Davis, 1945.
Havener WH. et al. Nursing care in eye, nose and throat disorders. St. Louis: Mosby, 1964.
For some reason, books for this specialty are infrequently published. Even if more than ten years old, one should also keep the most recent editions of texts in ophthalmic and otolaryngologic nursing.
Hill HW. Sanitation for public health nurses. New York: Macmillan, 1919.
One of a series of three small books edited by Mary S. Gardner.
Hine DC, ed. Black women in nursing: an anthology of historical sources. New York, Garland, 1984.
Brings together essays, surveys, and reports from 1898 to 1976; covers the development of Black collegiate nursing schools.
Hornsby JA, Schmidt RE. Modern hospital. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1913.
Jameson AB. Sisters of Charity, Catholic and Protestant, and the communion of labour. Boston: Tricknor and Fields, 1858.
Johnson RW. The nurse's guide and family assistant. Philadelphia: Anthony, Finley, 1819.
An early example of a text written by physicians for nurses.
Kimber DC. Anatomy and physiology for nurses. 1893.
A first science book for nurses by a nurse, this title continued in new editions through the 17th in 1977, with Marjorie Miller as the primary author. In 1982, it was still on the Brandon-Hill nursing list.
Kober GM. Hayhurst ER. Industrial health. Blakiston, 1924.
Another of the four physician authored texts of the 1920s that included nursing.
Lambertsen EC. Nursing team organization and functioning. New York: Teacher's College Press, 1953.
Team nursing dominated for many years, as an attempt to improve the efficiency of patient care. As originally conceived by Lambertsen, it was quite different from what it became.
_____ Education for nursing leadership. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1958.
LaMotte EN. The tuberculosis nurse. New York, 1915. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
Lesnick MJ, Anderson BE. Legal aspects of nursing. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1947.
The Library--a force for better nursing care. Papers presented at the Program Meeting of the Interagency Council on Library Tools for Nursing at the 1963 Convention of the National League for Nursing. New York: NLN, 1963 (League Exchange No. 67) (Code Number 14-1131).
Following an introduction by Lucy D. Germain, papers include Gertrude L. Annan, The Library as a Force in Continuing Education ; Dorothy I. Taylor, Nursing Service Uses the Library ; Veronica Lyons, The Heart of the School ; and Barbara Coe Johnson, Expectation and its Achievement in the Nursing Library . Includes an Appendix, Reference Tools for Nursing, which appears to be the forerunner of the biennial Interagency Council list.
Library Service in the Health Sciences, papers presented at the Program Meeting of the Interagency Council on Library Tools for Nursing at the 1967 Convention of the National League for Nursing. New York, NLN, 1967 (League Exchange No. 83) (Code Number: 14-1282).
Introduced by Jean Campbell, papers that year included Leonard Karel, Nursing and the National Library of Medicine ; Vern M. Pings, Access to the Scholarly Record ; Lois S. Gerber, Extramural Programs of the National Library of Medicine; and Alfred N. Brandon, Regional Libraries and Their Implications for Nursing. This was the first NLN Convention following publication of the International Nursing Index, which appears to relate to the choice of topics. The first cites a study of historical nursing resources at NLM (Barone, under archives), and the appointment of Dr. Kathryn M. Smith, Dean of the University of Colorado School of Nursing, to the NLM Board of Regents.
Maxwell AC, Pope AE, Practical nursing: a textbook for nurses. 1907.
McIsaac I. Hygiene for nurses. 1908.
____ Bacteriology for nurses. New York: Macmillan, 1909.
Two early science titles written by a nurse.
Melosh B, ed. American nurses in fiction: an anthology of short stories. New York, Garland, 1984.
This volume brings together nine typical stories featuring the nurse as the protagonist.
Montag ML. The education of nursing technicians. New York: Putnams, 1951.
This book is credited with beginning the Associate Degree nursing movement.
Moore HH. Public health in the United States. Harper, 1923.
Another of the four physician authored texts of the 1920s that included nursing.
National League for Nursing. Guide for the development of libraries in schools of nursing. New York: NLN, 1952. 2d ed. New York, NLN, 1964. 3d ed. New York, NLN, 1971.
The principles established by these guides were very helpful as a basis for establishing faculty status for the librarian, and the need for collection breadth and depth. A revision is in the works, under the auspices of the Interagency Council on Information Resources for Nursing.
National League of Nursing Education. Committee on the Revision of the Library Handbook for Schools of Nursing. A library handbook for schools of nursing. New York: National League for Nursing, 1953.
Finished as the old league became the new, this revised the first edition from 1936 (also a classic, if you have it). It includes 11 sections on organization and administration, a List of Subject Headings (p. 73-205), and a revision of the Bellevue Classification (p. 206-63, including a classification index). The subject headings, with cross references, are based on a list compiled for the 1936 edition by Mary Casamajor and Ann Doyle. Headings were selected based on a study of curriculum materials developed by the League and a review of subject headings used by NLM. Sears is suggested as a source for general headings as needed. The Bellevue classification was the standard for nursing libraries for many years. Decimal classes included 000 General, 100 Natural Science, 200 Social Sciences, 300 Nurses and Nursing, 400 Medicine, 500 Hospital Administration, 600 Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, 700 Public Health, 800 Philosophy and Religion, and 900 General Culture, The handbook also has a general index. It does not include recommendations for specific books of journals.
Nightingale F. Notes on nursing. 1859 (first American ed. 1861; many subsequent editions)
This is probably the most famous, most cited book in nursing history. In the same year, she also published Notes on Hospitals. Anything by or about Nightingale should be kept.
_______ Notes on nursing for the labouring classes, 1861.
An early work on district nursing - Nightingale wrote extensively on this topic. She recommended that district nurses also have a year of training in hospital nursing.
Nutting MA. A sound economic basis for schools of nursing. New York, 1926. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
Nutting succeeded Isabel Hampton Robb at Johns Hopkins before moving Teachers' College at Columbia University in 1907. The title comes from the first essay in this collection, which also addresses educational standards, visiting nursing, the quality of applicants to nursing schools, the responsibilities of trustees, problems involved in the dual education/service model, educational surveys, and inspirational addresses to nursing organizations.
____ , Dock L. A history of nursing. 2 vols. New York: Putnams, 1907.
Expanded to four volumes in 1937.
Parsons SE. Nursing problems and obligations. Boston, 1916. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
This popular text for probationers provided exact rules of conduct that formed the ethical basis of nursing practice of the time, and reflects the ideology of the era.
Pennock MR. Makers of nursing history. New York: Lakeside Publishing, 1928.
Pope AE, Carpenter ML. Essentials of dietetics. 1908.
Redmond, Juanita. I served on Bataan. Philadelphia, 1943. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
Memoirs of a nurse serving in the Pacific theater of World War II. She recounts the blessed numbness that helped her endure terrible conditions.
Richards L. Reminiscences of Linda Richards, America's first Trained Nurse. Boston: Whitcomb and Barrows, 1911.
Risley M. House of healing: the story of the hospital. New York: Doubleday, 1961.
Robb IH. Educational standards for nurses. Cleveland, 1907. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
Topics covered include state registration for nurses, women on hospital boards, the nurse as a citizen modern hospital nursing, district nursing, hospital economics, and curriculum needs.
______ Nursing: its principles and practice for hospital and private use. Philadelphia, Saunders, 1893.
One of the first texts for nurses by a nurse. According to Lippman, the first chapter was written for the teacher and included topics such as Chapter I. Training school organization and management reference library method and outline of theoretical teaching for the first two years.
_____ Nursing ethics, 1901.
Roberts M. American nursing. New York: Macmillan, 1954.
Includes an 1896 list of fifty texts for a school of nursing, which included only a dozen by nurse authors. The list was part of a curriculum committee report to the American Society of Superintendents of Training Schools for Nurses.
Rosenau M.J. Preventive medicine& hygiene. Appleton, 1921.
Another of the four physician authored texts of the 1920s that included nursing.
Schorr TM, Zimmerman A. Making choices, taking chances: nurse leaders tell their stories. St. Louis: Mosby, 1988.
Already gone from the Mosby catalog, this book provides 46 personal accounts of nurses and their career decisions. Nursing biography is scarce; more should be encouraged.
Shoemaker MT. History of nurse-midwifery in the United States. Washington, D.C., 1947. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
A short survey of formal programs for nurse-midwifery and chronicle of the organizational efforts of nurse-midwives.
Simmons LW, Henderson V. Nursing research: a survey and assessment. New York, Appleton, 1964.
This project developed a bibliographic file which became the foundation of the Nursing Studies Index. Grants from the U.S. Public Health Service financed this study conducted at Yale under the joint sponsorship of the School of Nursing, the Department of Public Health in the School of Medicine, and the Department of Sociology in the Graduate School.
Stewart IM. Education of nurses. New York, 1943. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
Stewart was strongly influenced by Dewey's educational theory. She worked hard to break nursing rituals and democratize nursing education by the education of women for leadership positions, by beginning with the reforms proposed by Nightingale and working toward the goal of collegiate nursing.
______, Austin AL. History of nursing: from ancient to modern times, a world view. New York: Putnam, 1962.
Stimson, JC. History and manual of the Army Nurse Corps. (Army Medical Bulletin No. 410) Carlisle Barracks, PN, Medical Field Service School, 1937.
Stoney EAM. Practical points for nursing in private practice, 1897 (In 1962, AJN Co. had only 2d ed., 1899.)
Strachey L. Eminent Victorians. New York, Putnams,
One of the four Victorians included is Florence Nightingale. While it would be impossible to list all biographical material on Nightingale in this list, this one could be easily missed.
Struthers Rogers L. The school nurse. New York, Putnam, 1919.
Thatcher ViS. History of anesthesia with emphasis on the nurse specialist. New York, 1929. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
This history of anesthesia focuses on the role of the nurse anesthetist in applying a medical discovery. It covers legal battles between nurses and physicians, as well as an early history of the American Association of Nurse Anesthetists.
Thoms AH. Pathfinders- a history of the progress of colored Graduate Nurses. New York, the author, 1929. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
By the late 1920s, there were 36 black training schools for nurses - brief histories of all are included in this volume, along with biographies of black nursing leaders, black involvement in community health/public health movements. Includes a history of the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses.
Van Blarcom CC. Obstetrical nursing: a textbook on the nursing care of the expectant mother, the woman in labour, the young mother, and her baby. New York: Macmillan, 1922.
Warrington J. The nurse's guide, series of instructions to females who wish to engage in the important business of nursing mother and child in the lying-in chamber. 1939.
Waters I. Visiting Nurse in the United States. New York: Charities Publishing Co., 1909.
Weeks-Shaw, CS. A textbook of nursing for the use of training schools, families, and private students. New York: Appleton, 1885. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
This was the first formal manual of nursing practice, with numerous editions through the end of the century. Later editions are also worth keeping - in 1962, the AJN Co. had the second edition, 1892, and was looking for a first. This book had 58 printings and sold over 100,000 copies. Last revised in 1916, and credited as the first to make a distinction between true nursing and merely carrying out physician's orders.
Wise PM. Textbook for training schools for nurses (2 volumes). 1896.
Another example of a reference by physicians for nurses.
Wright FS. Industrial nursing. New York: Macmillan, 1919.
One of a series of three small books edited by Mary S. Gardner.
(North American titles):
American Journal of Nursing , v. 1 Oct. 1900 to date
Canadian Nurse, v. 1, 1905 -
Henry Street Nurse, v. 1-5, 1920-1924.
Nursing Outlook, v. 1 1953-
Nursing Research, v 1., 1952-
Pacific Coast Journal of Nursing, v. 1-27, 1904-1935.
Public Health Nursing, v. 1-42, 1909-1952.
Visiting Nurse Quarterly 1909-11;
Public Health Nursing Quarterly 1912-1917,
The Public Health Nurse, 1918- from 1912-1952,
official journal of The National Organization of Public Health Nursing, which merged with the National League of Nursing Education in 1952 to become the NLN.
Trained Nurse and Hospital Review, vols. 1-122, 1888-1949; title changed to Nursing World, 1950-1960 .
Bennett C. Some nursing books are for keeps. Nursing Outlook 1969 Dec; 17(12): 53-55.
Lists types of books and archival resources which should be kept for historical research, as well as noting several specific titles, including many firsts.
Carr AM. Development of public health nursing literature. Public Health Nursing 1988, 5(2):81-5.
An edited historical reprint of the same article in Public Health Nurse 1926 (Feb.) 18(2):83-90, originally given as a paper at the Fifth International Congress of Nurses, in Helsingfors, Finland, July 1925. Annotated bibliography, in an edited version, of an survey of public health nursing literature from 1860 to 1925, divided into three periods. In the first, 1860-1900, printed material consisted principally of pamphlets and reports, with major contributions by Florence Nightingale. These were joined by "small" books and magazine literature in the period from 1900-1912. The last period saw increased publishing and the first standard textbooks.
Concordia Sr M. Basic book and periodical list, nursing school and small medical library. 4th ed. Peru, Il: St. Bede Abbey Press, 1967.
Lists 1374 books and 102 periodicals. The book lists are arranged by specialty and include prices. This booklet, along with earlier editions, is historically significant and worth retaining.
Cooper SS. The nursing literature. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing 1970 (Sept.) 1(3):35-42.
Lists and categorizes some of the earliest texts for clinical fields in nursing, along with an overview of the development of nursing periodicals.
Flaumenhaft E, Flaumenhaft C. American nursing's first textbooks. Nursing Outlook 1989 Jul-Aug; 37(4): 185-8.
Describes four key American texts from the last quarter of the nineteenth century, including known background information on the authors. The titles discussed include the Bellevue and Connecticut manuals and the first American nurse-authored texts, Robb and Weeks. Notes that The Nightingale (1886) was the first American nursing journal. This article is good reading, as it really presents the nature of these early works.
The History of American Nursing: A thirty-two volume facsimile series. Garland Publishing, 1984.
This series included a reprint edition of the Nursing Studies Index, four anthologies, a previously unpublished history, and 23 out of print titles selected Susan Reverby. The offer brochure provided a complete description of each work. Unfortunately, most of this series is now unavailable. A going out of print sale was offered in 1992 . For ordering information, Garland may be called at 1-800-627-6273; touch 2 for customer service (very helpful when I called).
Lippman DT. Early nursing textbooks. Imprint 1990 Apr-May; 37(2): 109-10, 112.
Describes early texts and their content; includes some quotes and pictures. Provides a "feel" for the type of resources available to early nurses and their instructors.
Smith MJ. Sifting and sorting the stuff of nursing: primary and secondary sources. Nursing Science Quarterly 1989 Fall; 2(3): 112-3.
An opinion piece that could be used to support the need to consult primary sources, especially as part of the research process. Implies that nursing courses rely too heavily on secondary sources - an interesting commentary on the nature of nursing education and nursing knowledge. Provides excellent rationale for maintaining (and not weeding) as complete a collection as possible in the area of original nursing theory.
American Nurses Association. Facts about nursing. 1935 - 1987 (?)
This reference source highlights statistics on registered nurses and others in related professions and facilities. Previously published by the American Nurses Association, it was transferred to the AJN Company prior to its apparent demise. Older editions should be kept as a source of hard to find statistical information.
Austin A. History of nursing source book. New York Putnam's, 1957.
Birnbach N, Levinson S, eds. Legacy of leadership: Presidential addresses from the Superintendent's Society and the National League of Nursing Education, 1894-1952. New York, National League for Nursing Press, 1993. (NLN Pub. No. 14-2514)
Includes 18 annual addresses from the Superintendent's Society, from 1894-1912. This is followed by three sections covering annual addresses from 1914-1952. Each section is introduced with an overview of the times by the editors. The book ends with an essay, Toward the Future, by Birnbach. Appendices include chronological lists of the Presidents of the Superintendent's Society, 1893-1912, The National League of Nursing Education, 1912-1952, and the National League for Nursing, 1952- 1995 (president-elect).
Birnbach N, Levinson S, eds. First words, selected addressees from the National League for Nursing, 1894-1933. New York, National League for Nursing Press, 1991. (NLN Pub. No. 14-2410.)
This collection is organized in six topical sections covering enduring issues in nursing: education, control of practice, recruitment, ethics, image, and power. Addresses are arranged chronologically in each section, following an editorial introduction to each topic. A brief historical introduction begins the volume.
Bishop WJ, Goldie S. A bio-bibliography of Florence Nightingale. Dawson's, 1962.
Henderson V. The nature of nursing New York: Macmillan, c1966.
_____The nature of nursing, a definition and its implications for practice, research, and education: reflections after 25 years. New York, National League for Nursing Press, 1991. (NLN Pub. No. 15-2346.
Provides background information on Henderson's definition of nursing and its relationship to nursing research and education needs. Virginia Henderson has championed nursing information access her entire career, so it's not surprising to find "Library Tools for Nursing" as an appendix in this book. This is a good snapshot of the limited access in the mid 1960s - notes that seven nursing journals were included in Index Medicus. This appendix is a good guide to tools for historical research. The revision contains the unabridged original, with an addendum to each chapter where Miss Henderson expresses what has and hasn't changed in her thinking. It is fascinating reading, yet poignant, at 95 Miss Henderson had to enter a retirement center and knows that she is confused. This is just two years after her reflections - amazingly on target for a woman then 93. In 1995, Fred Pattison reported that she was doing well under the circumstances.
National League for Nursing is the primary publisher of statistical data on nursing education in the United States. All editions of the various statistical and directory series should be get for historical reference and research.
Styles M, Moccia, P. On nursing: a literary celebration. New York, National League for Nursing Press, 1993. (NLN Pub. No. 14-2512)
This is a remarkable collection of excerpts from literary works by nurses, about nursing, and about the human condition in relation to issues of health. It includes a complete bibliography, author index, and subject index. For those unable to acquire older works, this provides a wide range of original writings. It also serves as an access point to the full works, leading the reader on to discover more.
Films and videos have become one means of preserving nursing history. I liked Sentimental Women Need Not Apply so much that it has been used as part of the Nursing Information Access course. The others listed are from catalogs - if any of you own these and would be willing to write an evaluative summary, I'd be happy to include in a future columns. In reviewing catalogs and ads, the perennial problem of incomplete bibliographic information forced me to do the best I could under the pressure of a deadline (I'm finishing this up on a Sunday and AVLINE is not current). Send me your favorites that either deal with nursing history and leaders, or are potential classics. For example, Mrs. Reynolds Needs a Nurse had a message that caused its use for a long time in our program, even though the old black and white film was deteriorating. Unfortunately, curricular use was dropped when young students couldn't get past the impressions caused by the dress of the time.
Cameo: Outstanding nurse researchers and their work. Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing and Studio Three. Distributed by Mosby.
The nine volumes described feature Dorothy Brooten, Nancy Fugate Woods, Elizabeth M. Burns, Joan Austin, Jacquelyn Flaskerud, Thelma Wells., Jacquelyn Campbell, Kathryn Barnard, and Katherine Buckwalter.
A case study in shaping health policy : the National Center for Nursing Research. National League for Nursing. New York, NY : The League, c1986. 1 videocassette (34 min.)
Producer abstract: Through documentary-style interviews and commentary, this program illustrates how the nursing community united to help create a nursing research center at the National Institutes of Health. The legislative history of the National Center for Nursing Research (NCNR) is traced: from the bill's introduction to massive lobbying efforts-Congressional approval-Presidential veto-reintroduction-- and final victory, this case study shows how nurses shaped landmark public policy.
A conversation on caring with Jean Watson and Janet Quinn. New York: National League for Nursing , 1990. 1 videocassette (27 minutes)
Producer summary: In this video, Jean Watson and Janet Quinn of the Center for Human Caring at the University of Colorado, discuss their views on human caring, healing, and health and where they diverge from the traditional health care delivery system. The Denver Nursing Project in Human Caring, which was established exclusively for persons with AIDS, is an example of their philosophy in action in a nurse-run patient care facility. Another is Janet Quinn's pioneering work in therapeutic touch with seniors.
A conversation with Elizabeth Carnegie. New York , National League for Nursing, 1 videocassette 1990.
A conversation with Virginia Henderson. New York , National League for Nursing, 1989. 1 videocassette (26 min.)
Patricia Moccia discusses nursing theory with Miss Henderson, one of the leading pioneers in nursing.
Distinguished leaders in nursing (series). National Medical Audiovisual Center, in cooperation with Sigma Theta Tau.:[Bethesda, Md.] : Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine. videocassettes, also available as a 16 mm. motion pictures.
Mabel Keaton Staupers, R. N. no. 1, 1977 (59 min.) Lucile Petry Leone. no. 2, 1977. (50 min.) Virginia Henderson. no. 3, 1978. Ruth Freeman. no. 4, 1979. (60 min.)
From critical abstract (AVLINE): Dr. Freeman's lifelong career as a teacher of public health nursing established her as a leader in the field. Public Health Nursing, in her view, is the caring for the patient in the normal family and community environment and the mobilization of the environment's resources for the care. She is a strong advocate of teamwork between the public health nurse practitioner and the family physician and sees the two in complementary rather than in competing roles. Dr. Freeman explains that she had never accepted international assignments in a developing country although highly motivated for such engagements--incidentally, a decision reached jointly with her family. During the interview she provides considerable insight into the motivation that made her choose and perform so well in this career.
Dorothy M. Smith, RN no. 5, 1979.
From critical abstract: Presents Dorothy M. Smith, Dean Emeritus at the University of Florida College of Nursing and Staff Nurse at the Alachua General Hospital in Gainesville. Smith has contributed to nursing in making the dean of nursing also function as the director of the nursing services in the teaching hospital, by introducing unit management as the ideal administrative patient care system to foster the physician-nurse collaboration, and by presenting nursing assessment of the patient with a person rather than disease orientation. She readily admits that many of these innovations still are controversial and need to be settled by the nursing profession. Her satisfaction as a professional nurse and teacher are derived from the patients and students whom she has helped, and the technology which she has introduced into the art of nursing
Martha E. Rogers, RN, Sc.D. no. 6, 1979 (57 min.)
From abstract: Dr. Rogers is one of nursing's leading theorists, having developed the Rogerian nursing science conceptual system, currently being used at New York University and other schools of nursing. In her interview, Dr. Rogers discusses her philosophy of nursing, gives her opinions on nursing programs and practices of today and presents her forecast of the future of nursing. She also recounts various areas of her professional life, some which have been controversial.
A fresh look at how we got where we are. 1 videocassette CNM, 1-800-264-ECHO
One of a group of videotapes featuring Marie Manthey, the leader in the primary nursing movement.
Frontier nursing: Frontier nursing service. presented by Headwaters. Whitesburg, KY : Appalshop, 1984. 1 videocassette 28 min., 30 sec.) :
Title on cassette label: Frontier nursing service. Funded by the National Endowment for the Arts. Includes excerpts from The Forgotten Frontier / Marvin Breckinridge Patterson, 1929.
Handmaidens and battle-axes; a film by Rosalind Gillespie, produced with the assistance of the Australian Film Commission ... [et al.].[N.S.W.?] : Silver Films, 1990. 1 videocassette (55 min.)
Producer summary: Hospitals cannot run without nurses; yet nurses--complaining of being overworked and underpaid, of burnout and lack of career structure--are leaving the profession in ever-increasing numbers. Using Australia as a case study, this film explores the history of nursing and considers whether nursing can again become a challenging, independent profession. Utilizing a combination of interviews, archival and modern verite footage, dramatic re-creations, and stills--as well as the earliest records of nurses at work in etchings, woodcuts, and paintings--the film presents a portrait of nursing that provides insights into this often misunderstood profession.
A Historical perspective of discipline without punishment. presentation by Creative Nursing Management, Inc. ; Minneapolis, MN. : CNM, c1991. 1 videocassette.
Producer summary: Marie Manthey reviews the historical roots of the use of punishment from the beginning of organized nursing to the present day.
Margaret Sanger : a public nuisance a video by Terese Svoboda and Steve Bull. Margaret Sanger Film Project, 1992. 1 videocassette (28 min.)
Funding provided by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting through the Independent Television Service.
The Nurse theorists: Florence Nightingale, produced by the Helene Fuld Health Trust.[Oakland, Calif.] : Studio Three Productions, a division of Samuel Merritt College,/c1990. 1 videocassette (77 min.)
Includes discussion and overview of Notes on nursing by Florence Nightingale.
The Nurse theorists: Virginia Henderson. produced by the Helene Fuld Health Trust. [Oakland, Calif.] : Studio Three Productions, a division of Samuel Merritt College of Nursing, c1988. 1 videocassette (43 min.)
Nursing in America: a history of social reform New York: National League for Nursing, 1990. 1 videocassette (30 minutes)
Colleague Barbara Wright recommended this video, now used in the Nursing Information Access course. Ellen Baer's Editorial notes with references comes with purchase; they are also available as a separate purchase. Producer notes: This video celebrates the achievements of nurses as social activists. The program presents renowned nursing historians, women's historians, nurse educators, and legendary nursing leaders who relate the proud history of the American nurse. These illustrious figures include Ellen Baer, Virginia Henderson, Elizabeth Carnegie, and Claire Fagin, to name only a few. It is accompanied by archival photos, period music, historic film footage, and oral histories. Issues related to Blacks in nursing are also highlighted.
Nursing in America: through a feminist lens. New York: National League for Nursing, 1991. 1 videocassette (28 minutes)
Looks at early feminists in nursing, and other caring professions, such as teaching and social work. It traces their contributions to contemporary feminism by briefly exploring their careers, their writings, and their public actions. Concludes with a roundtable discussion on nursing, caring, and feminism in the 1990s. Special guests include feminist thinkers, representing a wide diversity of opinions from both within and outside the nursing profession.
Nursing theory: circle of knowledge. New York: National League for Nursing, 1987. (2 videocassettes, 52 minutes total)
Because it features interviews with six leading nurse theorists, this is also valuable as historical material. The power of nursing. [New York, NY] : National League for Nursing, c1992. 1 videocassette (26 min.)
Producer abstract: This program offers viewers a glimpse into the private and professional lives of three women who began their careers as staff nurses and became outstanding national leaders. Their outlooks, accomplishments, and guiding principles are a catalyst for personal and professional change. In this program, Sheila Burke, Chief of Staff, Office of the Republican Leader; Rae Grad, Executive Director, National Commission to Prevent Infant Mortality; and Maria Mitchell, President and Chief Operating Officer, CHAP, are asked to identify the components of power. The video is a springboard for individual introspection and follow-up group discussion. My comment: this is the type of program that will be historically valuable, even as issues change.
Sentimental women need not apply: a history of the American nurse. Florentine Films: A film by Diane Garey &Lawrence R. Hott. Direct Cinema Release, 1988. 1 videocassette (60 minutes)
Documentary history of American nursing as a "women's profession", beginning with the Nightingale model from England. Following historical vignettes, focuses on current roles and issues. Includes comments by Virginia Henderson - "Society couldn't get along without nurses any more than they could get along without mothers."
Whether searching for historical information or the origins of a concept, access to resources published before 1966 is not available electronically.
American Journal of Nursing Company, Catalog of Sophia F. Palmer Memorial Library. Boston, G.K. Hall, 1973,
A guide to the collection at the time, the two volumes contain both author and subject listings in separate sections. Valuable for verifying older titles and conducting a subject search.
Nursing Studies Index, 1900-1959: Philadelphia, 1963,1966,1970,1972. Reprinted 1984, Garland.
An annotated guide to reported studies, research in progress, research methods and historical materials, in periodicals, books, and pamphlets published in English. Edited by Virginia Henderson associates and associates at Yale.
This retrospective index developed following the study directed by Simmons. It is very important to read the selection criteria for types of materials that were included before beginning a search of the four volumes in this set. Ten types of materials were included, making this a selective rather than a comprehensive index. Every entry concerns nurses or nursing. Emphasis was placed on articles about nurses and nursing and on research studies. Articles not meeting the criteria are not indexed. The preface of each volume includes these criteria and should be consulted prior to searching.
Reading the introductory remarks to this set is essential. First, not all nursing literature for the years covered is included, as coverage is limited to the defined criteria. Second, only one full entry is provided for each item, with numerous cross references from where you start to where you reach the primary entry, sometimes in multiple steps. However, the results are worth the chase.
American Hospital Association. Hospital Literature Index, Chicago , 1945 -
A source of management oriented nursing literature from the end of World War II to date.
American Journal of Nursing Cumulative Indexes - 1900-1975.
These cumulative indexes are the source of AJN references not included in the Nursing Studies Index. In addition, they provide a different set of access points, which may be a better fit for a search topic. Mink praised the indexing by the AJN Co., considering it far superior to that of other journals. Ten and five year cumulations were published, and they were considered a standard retrospective reference tool. While the need for cumulative indexes ceased with the inauguration of the two nursing indexes in the 1960s, the indexes are still valuable as an access point to these journals for the years covered.
The American Journal of Nursing (AJN) Company also published indexing on cards for nursing libraries to file in their card catalogs - they were still in the catalog of the Fairview Hospital School of Nursing in 1971 when I was responsible for merging its collection with our medical staff library to provide a health sciences library to meet the needs of all professionals in the hospital. (At that time, we also served the St. Olaf College of Nursing's students when on clinical in Minneapolis as well as the diploma program, which has since closed.) In 1964, the Interagency Council's Reference tools for Nursing reported that the index cards were available for a $5.00 annual subscription fee. The monthly set included current indexing for American Journal of Nursing , Nursing Outlook, and Nursing Research. The cards for AJN began in 1942, under the leadership of Mary Roberts, editor of AJN. Cards for Nursing Outlook and Nursing Research were added in 1954. Fred Pattison worked on these cards when he started working at the AJN Co. Library ; he reports that they were discontinued with the publication of the International Nursing Index. A report on the history of these cards would make interesting reading - I can't imagine keeping up such a file as the number of nursing journals exploded. Librarians supplemented the cards for these three titles with locally produced index cards for other nursing journals. That effort was actually the force behind the first Cumulative Index to Nursing - four librarians in the Los Angeles area combined their cardfiles to produce the first nursing index, covering 17 nursing journals when first published. Fred Pattison recently visited the library of the Royal College of Nursing in London and discovered that they continue to index the titles they receive, just converting from cards to an in-house online system in the past year.
Bullough VL, et al. American nursing: a biographical dictionary. New York: Garland, 1988- Vol. 1 co-editors included Olga Church and Alice P. Stein. Vol. 2 , 1992, co- editors Lilli Sentz and Alice P. Stein.
The editors have requested additional names for volume 3, planned for 1997 or 1998 when volume 2 was released. The biographies include the subject's publications and bibliographies for sources of additional information. Indexes include Decades of Birth, First Nursing School Attended, Area of Special Interest or Accomplishment, and States & Countries of Birth. In volume 2 an effort was made to locate nonwhites who may or may not have had formal training as nurses.
Bullough VL, Bullough B, Garvey J, Allen KA. Issues in nursing: an annotated bibliography. New York, Garland, 1985.
References to 2962 books and articles relating to nursing issues.
Bullough B, Bullough VL, Elcano B. Nursing: A Historical Bibliography. New York: Garland, 1981.
This title received high praise in review sources, including Choice, Library Journal, and American Reference Books Annual. Like other nursing history references, it was also recommended for women's studies collections.
Dollard AF. Bibliography of the American Journal of Nursing, 1924-1961. Buffalo, the author, 1962.
Listed in the Concordia bibliography, this is an example of how desperate the profession was for access to the nursing literature in the early 60s.
Taylor SD. Bibliography on nursing research, 1950-1974. New York: American Journal of Nursing Co., 1975.
Reprinted from Nursing Research 1975 (May-June) 24(3).
Thompson A. Bibliography of nursing literature, 1859-1960. London: Royal College of Nursing, 1968.
The definitive British work for historical reference work, covering the collection of the Royal College of Nursing Library.
Additional bibliographies are located in the NAHRS Newsletter 1993 (April) 12(4):4-9. This was compiled from a simple OCLC FirstSearch, and contains many titles useful to historical research. The history of the periodical indexing of the nursing literature is fascinating reading - all serious nursing librarians should read the following to get a sense of the historical struggle to gain adequate access:
Day PE. The International Nursing Index. American Journal of Nursing 1966 Apr; 66(4):783-6. (also reprinted in International Nursing Review 1966 May-June)
Details the history of the International Nursing Index, noting the lack of success achieved by earlier attempts to create an index for the nursing literature. Efforts began in Under her tenure, the reference card service was inaugurated.
Crawford ML. Unique job eases retirement. AORN Journal 1978 Mar; 27(4): 754,6,8.
Mabel Crawford was a retired operating room supervisor when she became one of the first indexers for the Cumulative Index to Nursing Literature (now CINAHL). She describes the history of this index and how indexing decisions are made - helpful in understanding how CINAHL differs from International Nursing Index.
Cunningham EV. A critique of the two indexes to nursing literature. Nursing Forum 1967; 6(4): 352-63.
Reviews the historical development of the Cumulative Index to Nursing Literature and International Nursing Index and compares indexing practices based on the 1966 annual volumes. The comments on the divergent basis of the subject authority for the two indexes still seem quite valid.
Grandbois M. The Nursing Literature Index: Its history, present needs, and future plans. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 1964 Oct; 52(4): 676-83.
Describes development of the index by three librarians in Southern California who shared the painstaking work involved in producing the first volumes. Hints at conflict with those proposing another nursing index - references are made to the American Journal of Nursing Company and MEDLARS options under discussion at the time. Surveys of early subscribers indicate the overwhelming immediate need for a nursing index in the early 1960s. Access to origin of a concept can be provided by citation indexing as well as via indexes that provide subject access. While the Nursing Citation Index section of International Nursing Index has ceased, limited access is still available to the nursing journals included in Social Science Citation Index. Unfortunately, in 1991 this was only 12 titles!
Johnson ED. In search of applications of nursing theories: the Nursing Citation Index. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 1989 Apr; 77(2): 176-84.
Reviews use of the Nursing Citation Index and shows how it is particularly valuable for finding articles using particular nursing theories and models. As suggested above, subject searching for older information can be a challenging task - especially when searching for clinical information not covered by the four Nursing Studies Index volumes. In addition to the recent Parsons article, older bibliographies of nursing references provide information on sources available to nurses of that era. Thus, I've listed Henderson's 1968 series, in addition to noting the section in her classic, The Nature of Nursing, along with some other reading about nursing history.
Notes significant progress in nursing research, to the point where there is media interest in the results of nursing studies. Source of a favorite quote for classes on reviewing the literature; "Citations are a very sensitive index of the quality of the work. An investigation is not important because it has never been done, but because it grows out of previous research that forms the rationale. In order to develop such a rationale, a researcher must go beyond textbook and popular literature to a synthesis of primary sources."
Fondiller S. Back to the future: directions for nursing. Imprint 1990 Apr-May; 37(3): 66- 71.
An excellent rationale for the study of nursing history, prepared for nursing students. Notes that the teaching of history waned before its current resurgence. One reason for renewed interest: the demand for professional accountability in a humanistic profession.
Henderson V. Library resources in nursing - their development and use, Part I. International Nursing Review 1968; 15(2): 164-73.
Part II. International Nursing Review 1968; 15(3): 236-46.
Part III. International Nursing Review 1968; 15(4): 348-53.
Following an extensive history and discussion of reference sources appropriate for nursing use, Miss Henderson makes recommendations to improve nursing libraries that include nurse participation in collection development decisions, requiring documentation from the literature in written reports, including library instruction in nursing education, and faculty status for librarians.
Herrmann E. Why and where nurse historians congregate. Imprint 1990 Apr-May; 37(3):115-6.
Discusses archives and the American Association for the History of Nursing (AAHN).
Parsons M, Williams MH. Teaching nursing history. Nurse Educcator 1987 Jan/Feb; 12(1): 38-42.
The authors, a nursing professor and a librarian, describe the use of biography and autobiography in teaching nursing history; including a search strategy for discovering titles in the library's collection. Their search approach is designed to avoid the problems created by "outmoded cataloging systems" and "to beat the system". Archives are available in many organizations; many are identified in the sources below. Consider sources featuring hospitals (AHA Historical Collection), social reform and the settlement movement, public health, and women's history as well as specific nursing archives and libraries.
Sorenson ES. Historiography: Archives as sources of treasure in historical research. Western Journal of Nursing Research 1988 Oct; 10(5): 666-70.
A good overview - explains archival study and lists significant nursing archives.
Abdellah FG. The National Library of Medicine--A treasure trove for nurse researchers. Journal of Professional Nursing 1990 May-June; 6(3):134.
While this is only a brief fact sheet on NLM, it does point out the value of NLM collections for historical research; notes that papers of Abdellah are housed at NLM.
Barone MA, Crouse JM. The report of the NLM Collection of Historical Materials on Nursing. Division of Nursing, Public Health Service, 1966.
Callahan CL. A Record of Nursing: Boston University Nursing Archive. Nursing Outlook 1972 (Dec) 20(12): 778-81.
Based on materials supplied by Mary Ann Garrigan, Curator of the Archive.
Reports the history of this national treasure, beginning in 1966 when the university agreed to establish a nursing archive in the new library and accepted their nursing school's Martha Ruth Smith Historical Collection. It was aided by a Public Health Service grant. Several archival collections from the American Journal of Nursing Company were placed there in 1971. It is also designated as the depository for archival American Nurses Association papers. The article highlights key collections and includes pictures. The archive continues, even though the Boston University School of Nursing closed.
Fairman JA. Sources and references for research in nursing history. Nursing Research 1987 Jan-Feb; 36(1): 56-9.
Selected list of 22 archival collections and nursing history research centers (criteria for selection are not given), plus a briefly annotated list of selected studies, texts and classics related to the history of nursing. For each archival collection, includes directory information, a brief description, contact person, hours, and notes regarding access policies, Includes a request for information on additional centers or collections of nursing history.
Fondiller SH, Picciano JL. Guide to archival sources in nursing. West Long Branch, NJ: Interagency Council on Library Resources for Nursing, 1990.
In an American Nurses' Foundation project sponsored by a grant from the Council on Library Resources, the investigators identified over 200 depositories in the United States housing archival materials related to nursing. The repositories listed in this directory include archives of nursing leaders, state nurses associations and other professional organizations, state boards of nursing, community and visiting nurses associations, baccalaureate and higher degree programs in nursing, and closed hospital schools of nursing. This is a beginning reference; future plans include an expanded 2d ed, possibly with electronic access.
Hezel LF, Linebach,LM. The development of a regional nursing history collection: its relevance to practice, education, and research. Nursing Outlook 1991 Nov-Dec; 39(6): 268-72
Asserting that the future of the profession requires an understanding of its history, the authors describe the development and funding of a regional collection. Includes the role of the librarian in developing the grant proposal, and the roles of the library and archives at the University of Missouri.
Milauskas J. Surveying nursing's history. Nurs Success Today 1985 Sept; 2(9):41.
Describes the Midwest Nursing History Research Center, a project at the University of Illinois College of Nursing to catalogue historical resources in nursing in thirteen Midwestern states.
Miller HS. Registering the history of nursing. Image Journal of Nursing Scholarship 1992 Fall 24(3):241-5.
The retired manager of the nursing library at Yale University School of Nursing recounts her experiences in archiving records of the school. She offers practical guidelines, illustrated with tales of discoveries.
Miller LB. The Sophia F. Palmer Memorial Library. Nursing Outlook 1962 Oct; 10(10): 674-5.
Describes the history of this library, currently serving the American Journal of Nursing Company. Based on a collection started by the Journal's editor in the early part of the century, the library was organized in 1948. At that time, the journal offices and the national nursing organizations were located in one building in New York, along with the National Health Council which maintained a library with reference materials and periodicals in allied health and related fields. In 1951, the AJN Co. moved and initiated plans to inaugurate a national nursing library to serve its editorial staff and the nursing organizations. Moving again in 1959, the library continued to serve the American Nurses Association, the National League for Nursing, and related organizations. The article notes significant historical holdings (all titles noted are on the list of books to keep) ; it also reviews the library's policies at that time. Addendum: In 1973, when the two volume print catalog of this library was published, the preface noted that the ANA had moved to Kansas City in 1972 and no longer shared use of the library. While the NLN, American Nurses Foundation, and National Student Nurses Association continued to use the library, the AJN Co. provided its sole financial support. Early dreams to make this collection a true national nursing library never materialized. Its archival papers, including some vertical file material, were moved to Boston University's Nursing Archives, established in 1971, but the core book and journal collection remains.
A nurse's copyright upheld. Trained Nurse and Hospital Review 1929 (Sept) 83(3):393.
This short news item (found while searching old journals for book reviews) notes that O. Boto Schellberg, RN and the International Journal of Surgery were awarded $8500 in a copyright suit against the Rev. James Empringham, Ph.D. and his publisher, Matthew Bender& company Dr. Empringham had reprinted Schnellberg's material on colon irrigation, selling it in book form at $1.00 per copy without giving credit.
Pillitteri A, Ackerman M. The Doctor-Nurse Game': a comparison of 100 years--1888- 1990. Nursing Outlook 1993 (May/June) 41(3):113-6.
The following article was noted in the October health policy FTL column; it's repeated as an example of how local archives can become the basis of fascinating historical research. This qualitative historical contrast study compared interactions between a physician and nursing staff in 1888 and 1990 in Buffalo, NY. A logbook kept in 1888 was compared to a taped journal kept by a 1990 resident. While some changes were noted from 1888 to 1990, more similarities remained. In the teaching- learning relationship, the 1888 resident was responsible for a large portion of the nurses' education; the 1990 resident saw the nurses in a teaching role. Both residents cited examples where they found nurses irresponsible. While the 1888 resident referred to an instance of collaboration, there was none in 1990. Both resented being awakened at night by nurses. While social relationships were forbidden in 1888, some were reported; the 1990 resident was married and reported no social contact outside of work. There was no change in belief in ultimate authority residing with the physician, and lack of tolerance for nurse assertiveness exhibited by both. The doctor-nurse relationship depicted by the two journals has demonstrated minimal change, with responsibility for teaching the only major shift. Study of nurse- physician relationships has the potential for benefiting both disciplines, and historical contrast studies can help to understand trends. (RNdex excerpts, modified from structured abstract) The nurse-physician relationship looks like the major barrier to health care reform featuring expanded roles for nurses; this article show how little it's changed.
(edited to not duplicate the course bibliography)
Baas LS. An analysis of the writings of Janet Geister and Mary Roberts regarding the problems of private duty nursing. Journal of Professional Nursing 1992 (May-June) 8(3): 176-83.
Over the years, commercially published nursing journals have tended to have a different flavor than those journals which were official publications of professional organizations. Janet Geister was a contributor to Trained Nurse and Hospital Review (later Nursing World), serving as an editor from 1939 until 1946. She continued to write for those journals and RN Magazine. From 1926 to 1935, she served as Executive Director of the ANA and participated in projects supportive of private duty nursing - her sudden resignation in 1935 appears related to disagreement with the nursing elite. Mary Roberts was the second editor of American Journal of Nursing , serving from 1923 to retirement in 1949. Both were supportive of the needs of the private duty nurses, who had a particularly difficult economic lot during the depression. This author sees Roberts as working within the profession, expecting nurses to accept hospital employment as opposed to private practice. On the other hand, Geister is seen as more radical, calling on the profession to establish group or hourly practice that would maintain some autonomy for the individual nurse. While hospital employment has provided economic security, its effect on professional autonomy has been generally negative. Interesting reading, that raises current questions regarding the nature of nursing journalism. Are commercial publications, such as RN and Nursing94 more in touch with their readers?
Beeby NV. The world's nursing journals. International Nursing Review 1958 July; 5: 57-67.
A particularly descriptive study of 60 national and international nursing journals undertaken in 1956 and 1957; compares the status of nursing journals to a 1928 survey by the International Council of Nurses.
Benson ER. Josephine Goldmark (1877-1950): A Biographic Sketch. Public Health Nursing 1987 (March) 4(1):48-51.
The author of the landmark study, Nursing and Nursing Education in the United States (1923) was not a nurse, but a sociologist devoted to social reform. Her wide ranging achievements are noted here, including other links to nursing.
Bullough VL. Nightingale, nursing, and harassment. Image Journal of Nursing Scholarship 1990 (Spring) 22(1):4-7.
The Bulloughs are noted scholars and authors on nursing history and the image of nursing. In this article, Nightingale's rules and housing arrangements for nurses are seen as protective for nurses who were at risk of harassment in their new unique role. Women working outside the home in Victorian times were seen as needing this type of protection.
Byrne MW. Imprint, the NSNA Journal, 1968-1973: A profession's messages to its students in turbulent times. Imprint 1990 Apr-May; 37(3): 97-105.
A content analysis of the themes in Imprint, the student journal. The author's summary: Nursing students' concerns appear to have been enmeshed in concerns for society, self-actualization, and gender, and to have differed somewhat from those of other students. The nursing student voice is heard not alone, but in dialogue, often in concert, sometimes opposed.
Chayer ME. The trail of the nursing textbook. American Journal of Nursing 1950 (October) 50(10:606-7)
Hegge M. In the footsteps of Florence Nightingale: Rediscovering the Roots of Nursing. Imprint 1990 Apr-May; 37(3): 74-9.
Describes the nursing school at Kaiserswerth, founded in 1837 by a Protestant pastor concerned with the plight of the villagers. After building a hospital, he realized the need for a trained workforce. The local doctor agreed to teach and wrote a text in German. Published in 1837, it is cited as the first text for nurses there. Florence Nightingale visited this institute in 1851, applied for admission, and graduated later that year. The Kaiserswerth Institute is still an active institution with an 800 bed hospital, a 75,000 volume medical library, a three year nursing school, and an archives.
Henderson V. An overview of nursing research. Nursing Research 1957 (Oct.) 6(2):61-71.
A review of studies identified in her work with Simmons.
Holmes P. News focus: Who's afraid of Virginia Henderson? Nursing Times 1985 (August 7) 16-17.
A short source piece; p. 17 has good quotes on computers and on library research. Miss Henderson is adamant that nurses must become computer literate' unless they want to be left behind. And, Miss Henderson bemoans the wealth of completed research that is lying, unused and forgotten, on the dusty shelves of libraries. Nurses need to acquire the habit of looking for research upon which to base their practice,' she says.
A literary club. American Journal of Nursing 1900 Nov; 1(2): 161.
Found reviewing AJN indexes for early articles on nursing libraries, this brief report from the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto describes an activity quite similar to today's journal clubs.
MacQueen J M. Who the Dickens brought Sarai Gamp to Canada? Canadian Journal of Nursing Research 1989 (Summer) 21(2): 27-37.
Due to Charles Dickens' portrayal of the nurse Sarai Gamp in Martin Chuzzlewit (1843), the image of the old, uncaring alcoholic as typical of nursing before Nightingale has persisted as a description for early nursing in Canada (and elsewhere). This study is an examination of nurses in nineteenth century Canada before the development of nursing schools. With the limited data available, the picture that emerges suggests that the image does not apply. Specifically, alcoholic nurses were discharged - this behavior was not tolerated. Also, records of British Hospital indicate more structure and order, suggesting that the image may have been used as a worst case to build support for training schools. This article is useful for explaining the Sarai Gamp image and as an illustration of the difficulties of historical research.
National League for Nursing Centennial Nursing History Trivia Quiz. Nursing & Health Care 1993 (April) 14(4):196; answers 14(6):322.
Need 14 good historical questions for BI or a trivia contest to promote library use? Here's a good source for the U.S.
Patterns in education: the unfolding of nursing. New York, National League for Nursing, 1985 (NLN Pub. No. 15-1974)
A compilation of key issues in U.S. nursing education, including the future of nursing education, single purpose institutions, the knowledge base (including "Being informed: Nursing resources for the information age" by Virginia Henderson), quality assurance, and new opportunities.
Pillitteri A. Documenting Lystra Gretter's student experiences in nursing: a 100-year comparison with today. Nursing Outlook 1991 Nov-Dec; 39(6): 273-9.
Gretter, who graduated from nursing school as a widow and single mother in 1888, was also the guiding force in the preparation of the Florence Nightingale Pledge. Notes similarities in her background with many of today's non-traditional nursing students, and compares the educational experiences. Helps to understand the content of the pledge and why it has fallen in disfavor - mainly due to the emphasis in the last line on assisting the physician.
Reilly DE. Research in nursing education: yesterday-today-tomorrow. Nursing & Health Care 1990 Mar; 11(3): 138-43.
Reilly relates what it was like to do nursing education research in 1948, before many guideposts were available. She was one of the first nurses to have a full time appointment to conduct research, and her gratitude for the publication of the Nursing Studies Index is noted in vivid detail. She notes the time of relative disdain for nursing education research (as opposed to clinical), followed by its return to grace in 1983.
Rivers J. The story of the first nursing journal -- Nursing Notes Midwives Chronicle 1987 Jun; 100(1193): 161; Advertising notes 162-3.
Brief history of Nursing Notes, which began publication in 1887 and was the first nursing journal published in England. (The Nightingale was actually the first American one - see Flaumenhaft.) The earliest issues were a monthly supplement to a paper called Woman. In 1908 it became Nursing Notes and Midwives Chronicle A Practical Journal for Midwives and Nurses, with the order reversed in 1940. In 1944 it became Midwives Chronicle, as well as the official journal of the College of Midwives.
Rosenberg C. Clio and caring: an agenda for American historians and nursing. Nursing Research 1987 (Jan-Feb) 36(1):67-8.
Noting that academic historians have become interested in nursing, Rosenberg identifies eight areas where the subject matter of nursing history implies consideration of issues central to contemporary historians. Theses include History from below, Gender and the Professions, Knowledge and Authority, The Role of Technology, The New Institutional History, The Hospital as Problematic, The Nurse as Worker, and History as Meaning. This discussion, along with the relevance of nursing history to women's studies, provide support for adding more works in this field to a college library. When a library has a collection development budget based on departmental allocations, the history and women's studies departments could be approached for cost-sharing in this area - use this article as part of your rationale.
Shisler, CM. Evaluating your nursing collection: a quick way to preserve nursing history in a working collection. J Med Libr Assoc 2007 95(3):278-283.
Schlotfeldt RM. Defining nursing: a historic controversy. Nursing Research 1987 (Jan-Feb) 36(1): 64-7.
Suggesting that nursing research should derive from the definition, or nature, of nursing as a profession, Schlotfeldt contrasts the Nightingale-Henderson definition focused on human potential with ones focused on deficits. Careful reading of this article helps to understand the ongoing controversy over nursing diagnosis and provides perspective on the historical dilemmas in nursing.
Sentz L, ed. Focus on nursing. The Watermark, newsletter of the Associations of Librarians in the History of the Health Sciences 1989 Winter; 13(2):9-19.
Includes an essay on Nightingale by Vern Bullough, an annotated bibliography of major biographies about Nightingale, a selected list of nursing archives with descriptions of the collections, and a selected bibliography of sources for history of nursing research. The annotations make interesting reading.
The Story of our magazine. Public Health Nursing 1933 Mar; 25(3): 159-62.
Turkoski BB. Nursing Diagnosis in Print, 1950-1985. Nursing Outlook 1988 May-Jun; 36(3):142-4.
An example of the use of nursing literature for historical research, this article summarizes a content analysis of 150 articles on nursing diagnosis, chosen from 450 reviewed. Several trends are identified. Two examples: 40% had an overt defensiveness. Medical language was used in 87%. If you're hearing that nursing diagnosis is controversial and possibly on its way out, you'll want to read this one for background.
Wilson V. From Sentinels to Specialists. American Journal of Nursing 1990 (Oct) 90(10): 32-43.
One of many excellent articles in the 90th anniversary issue of AJN, this article traces the amazing evolution of critical care nursing from its humble beginnings as private duty for the sickest patients to the sophisticated, autonomous, care-oriented specialty it is today. Realizing that identification of this field as a distinct specialty began in 1959 alerts us to the reality that historical resources in this field are relatively new.
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